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Justice Turned On Its Head

Eleventh Circuit US Court of Appeal: RES JUDICATA EXISTS ON NEW CLAIMS ARISING AFTER FORMER LAWSUIT WAS FILED

 

See Pleming v. Universal-Rundle Corp., 142 F.3d 1354 (11th Cir. 1998), below

 

 

WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAGE?

  • The Eleventh Circuit will used unpublished opinions to undermine the "rule of law" as stated in published opinions.

  • The Eleventh Circuit will resort to extraordinary and lawless measures to conceal the Judicial Misconduct and lawless decisions of Judge Donald L. Graham. See mmason.freeshell.org/01-13664/OrderAffirmingTrialCourt/Opinion-OCR.htm#CoreAllegations

  • Judge Graham has been affirmed while his colleagues have been reversed for the precisely the same set of facts and law. 

Further support for these serious and scandalous allegations are set forth at:

mmason.freeshell.org/martinez.htm or mmason.orgfree.com/martinez.htm

mmason.freeshell.org/WorldThrust.htm or mmason.orgfree.com/WorldThrust.htm .

mmason.freeshell.org/01-13664/OrderAffirmingTrialCourt/Opinion-OCR.htm

One of the really mean spirited things that Judge Graham did was award attorney's fees of over $200,000 against Marcellus Mason, an indigent pro se Plaintiff, based upon a clearly invalid sua sponte issued pre-filing injunction.  See mmason.orgfree.com/attorneysfees.htm , or mmason.freeshell.org/attorneysfees.htm

 

 

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RELEVANT QUESTION

How can you sue on February 4, 1999 (Case No. 99-14027-CV-Graham) for claims that did not exist until March 28, 2001 and January 25, 2000 (Case No. 01-14310-CV-Graham)?  The Eleventh Circuit, Judge Ed Carnes, Charles R. Wilson, and Phyllis Kravitch,  and Judge Donald L. Graham have held that you can.  

 

THE ELEVENTH CIRCUIT PUBLISHED LEGAL STANDARDS ON RES JUDICATA

Kaiser Aerospace & Elec. v. Teledyne Indus., 244 F.3d 1289 (11th Cir., 2001) was decided on March 23, 2001. In Kaiser Aerospace, citing Manning v. City of Auburn, 953 F.2d 1355, 1360 (11th Cir. 1992), the Eleventh Circuit held that is frequent pronounced that "res judicata does not apply where the facts giving rise to the second case only "arise after the original pleading is filed in the earlier litigation."" ... [W]e do not believe that the res judicata preclusion of claims that "could have been brought" in earlier litigation includes claims which arise after the original pleading is filed in the earlier litigation. Instead, we believe that, for res judicata purposes, claims that "could have been brought" are claims in existence at the time the original complaint is filed or claims actually asserted . . . in the earlier action...We repeated this rule from Manning in Pleming v. Universal-Rundle Corp., 142 F.3d 1354 (11th Cir. 1998).  For more legal authority by the Eleventh and Florida Appellate Courts, See http://mmason.freeshell.org/junklaw/resjudicata.html .

 

FIRST LAWSUIT, CASE NO. 99-14027-CIV-GRAHAM/LYNCH

In February 1999, Marcellus Mason filed an employment discrimination lawsuit against the Highlands County Board of County Commissioners and Heartland Library Cooperative in the Southern District of Florida, 99-14027-CIV-Graham.  The case was ultimately assigned to Judge Donald L. Graham and Magistrate Judge Frank Lynch, Jr. The docket is available online with the Court's Electronic Document Filing System and at mmason.orgfree.com/CompleteDocket.htm and mmason.freeshell.org/CompleteDocket.htm .  This employment discrimination lawsuit based upon a Notice of Right to Sue issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, "EEOC" on issued February 11, 1999, Charge # 150 99 0755.  The case was closed on June 20, 2001 because of an alleged violation of an injunction rendered by Magistrate Judge Frank Lynch which enjoined direct out of court communications and Florida Law public records requests with the Highlands County Government.  During the pendency of this lawsuit, between February 1999 and June 20, 2001, Mason applied for several jobs with the Highlands County Government in order to vindicate his right to seek public employment.  

 

SECOND LAWSUIT, CASE NO. 01-14310-CIV-GRAHAM/LYNCH

On or about October 4, 2001, Marcellus Mason filed an employment discrimination lawsuit in state court,  Tenth Judicial Circuit in and for Highlands County, Florida, Case Number GC-00-269. This lawsuit alleges racial discrimination and retaliation on a failure to hire claim.  On or about March 28, 2001, Mason applied for a job with Highlands County as a sign technician. This lawsuit was based upon a Notice of Right to Sue issued by the EEOC on  September 6, 2001, Charge  #150A13119Alternate Site.     On October 19, 2001, Highlands County removed the lawsuit from state court and filed it federal court where it was assigned to Judge Donald L. Graham, Case No. 01-14310.  See Case No. 01-14310, (DE #1, Complaint, Exhibit “A”).  Judge Graham promptly dismissed this lawsuit based upon res judicata even though the claim for this lawsuit did not exist until March 28, 2001 when Mason applied for the job and September 6, 2001 when the EEOC issued a Right to Sue Letter.    On April 12, 2002, the Magistrate issued a Report and Recommendation, "R&R", recommending that Mason's claims for failure to hire in this matter be dismissed under the theory of res judicata.  See Docket Entry 79, (D.E. #79),  In this R&R, the previous lawsuit. Case No. 99-14027-CV-Graham, is discussed to make the case for res judicata, but no mention is made of the fact that this case arose after the previous filed and closed.  Judge Graham did a two page "de novo" review and adopted this R&R, dismissing Mason's claim.  Docket Entry 101, (D.E. #101),  An Appeal was attempted, but the Eleventh Circuit, Judge Susan H. Black,  killed the appeal on the launching pad by denying an in forma pauperis motion.  "Appellant's motion for leave to proceed on appeal in forma pauperis is DENIED because the appeal is frivolous. "  See Pace v. Evans, 709 F.2d 1478 (11th Cir.) 1983). See Case No. 02-13314, Order dtd. Nov. 6, 2002.  

 

 

THIRD LAWSUIT, CASE NO. 02-14049-CIV-MOORE

On or about November 12, 1999, Marcellus Mason applied for a position, Budget Technician, with the Highlands County Government.  Mason subsequently filed a complaint with the EEOC because Highlands County filed to hire him or even interview him for the position for which he was well qualified.  In this EEOC complaint Mason alleges failure to hire and retaliation. The EEOC  issued a Notice of Right to Sue on February 1, 2001,  Charge #150 A0 1181.  The matter was filed in filed in state court on or about January 11, 2002 under Case No. GC-01-587, removed to the Federal Court, the Southern District of Florida on Feb. 11, 2002 and assigned to Judge Moore and Case No. 02-14049.  Normally, this case would have been assigned to Judge Donald L. Graham, but he since he was being sued in this lawsuit, it fell to Judge Moore.  On May 13, 2002, Magistrate Judge, John O'Sullivan, wrote a blistering Report and Recommendation, "R&R", recommending that all of Mason's claims be dismissed.  See Docket Entry 52, (D.E. #52).  It is noteworthy that the R&R does not discuss the dates of the causes of action arose in the two lawsuits.  As a matter of fact, the R&R does not set forth the legal requirements of res judicata.  Additionally, the R&R, discusses a sua sponte issued pre-filing injunction that has been soundly rejected by US Courts of Appeal and the Eleventh Circuit.  See mmason.freeshell.org/RejectSuaSponte.htm  Judge Moore did a one page de novo review and adopted the R&R in its entirety and closed the case.  See Docket Entry No.56, (D.E. #56).   An appeal bearing Eleventh Circuit Case No. 02-13418 followed.  

 

ELEVENTH CIRCUIT'S UNPUBLISHED OPINION CASE NO. 02-13418, DISTRICT COURT CASE NO. 0214049

See  Opinion

The following represents the Eleventh Circuits entire discussion of res judicata on this:

Res judicata bars Mason's employment discrimination claims against the county. Under res judicata, "a final judgment on the merits bars the parties from , re-litigating a cause of action that was or could have been raised in that action." In re Piper Aircraft Corp., 244 F.3d 1289, 1296 (11th Cir. 2001). Penalty dismissals under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 41 (b) are considered to be a final judgment on the merits. See Orca Yachts v. MoHican, Inc., 287 F.3d 316,319 (4th Cir.2002); 18A Charles Alan Wright, Arthur R. Miller, Edward H. Cooper, Federal Practice and Procedure § 4440, at 205 (2002); Federal Rules of Civil ProcedureI'41(b) ("For failure of the plaintiff to prosecute or comply with these rules or any order of the court, a defendant may move for dismissal of an action. . . Unless the court in its order for dismissal otherwise specifies. . . a dismissal under this, subdivision. . . operates as an adjudication on the merits.") In several previous lawsuits, including 99-CV-14027, Mason claimed Highlands County engaged in race discrimination. The district court dismissed 99-CV-14027 under Rule 41(b) because of Mason's continual disregard for the court's orders and rules. This court affirmed the Rule 41 (b) penalty dismissal of 99-CV-14027 in Mason v. Heartland Library Cooperative, 01-13664 (11th Cir. October 16, 2002). Therefore, because a final judgment on the merits has been previously rendered on his race discrimination claims against Highlands County, res judicata bars Mason's re-assertion of those claims.

See Eleventh's Circuit's Unsigned and Unpublished Opinion, Case No. 02-13418

 

 

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United States Court of Appeals,

 

 

Eleventh Circuit.

 

 

No. 97-8170.

 

 

Sandra L. PLEMING, Plaintiff-Appellant,

 

 

v.

 

 

UNIVERSAL-RUNDLE CORPORATION, Defendant-Appellee.

 

 

June 8, 1998.

 

Appeal from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. (No. 1:96-CV-0317-MHS), Marvin H. Shoob, Judge.

Before BIRCH, Circuit Judge, FAY, Senior Circuit Judge, and COHILL(*), Senior District Judge.

BIRCH, Circuit Judge:

This appeal requires us to address whether the doctrines of res judicata or collateral estoppel bar a cause of action for employment discrimination and retaliation. In the course of prior litigation, the parties briefed and discussed the incidents giving rise to the complaint in the present case but never amended the pleadings in the first litigation to include a claim based on the incidents. The plaintiff-appellant maintains that, because our precedents did not require her to amend her complaint to include claims based on incidents of alleged discrimination discovered after she filed her first lawsuit, res judicata and collateral estoppel cannot now prevent her from bringing the discovered claims in a second lawsuit. The district court found that the plaintiff-appellant had asserted the subsequent incidents before the first court and, therefore, held that res judicata or, alternatively, collateral estoppel barred the suit. We disagree and REVERSE.

 

BACKGROUND

 

In the summer of 1992, plaintiff-appellant, Sandra L. Pleming, suffered a back injury while she worked as a laborer for defendant-appellee, Universal-Rundle Corporation ("Universal-Rundle"). In July 1993, she applied for a clerical position that would have been less physically demanding but would have paid her less than what she earned as a laborer. Although apparently qualified for the position, Pleming did not receive the job. In August 1994, Pleming filed an employment discrimination lawsuit in federal district court alleging that Universal-Rundle had discriminated against her based on her race and disability. Pleming's complaint relied on Title VII, 42 U.S.C. � 2000e, et. seq., and 42 U.S.C. � 1981. Although Pleming stated a prima facie case of discrimination, Universal-Rundle explained that it had not hired Pleming for the clerical position because the company had a policy against allowing employees to transfer to lower paying jobs.

In October 1994, during the course of the litigation, two additional clerical positions of the type Pleming sought opened at Universal-Rundle. Pleming did not apply for either of these positions and the company filled them with other applicants. In fact, Pleming did not learn about these additional positions at Universal-Rundle until May 1995, during the course of discovery. Although Pleming never amended her complaint to include allegations of discrimination arising out of these incidents, she described the incidents in her briefs before the magistrate judge and the district court. Pleming sought to use these incidents to prove that Universal-Rundle's policy was a pretext for discrimination and thus avoid summary judgment on her claims arising out of the July 1993 hiring decision. A magistrate judge found that Pleming's claims of racial discrimination were sufficient to withstand Universal-Rundle's motion for summary judgment. The magistrate judge's report and recommendation (the "report") included a reference to the two clerical positions that Universal-Rundle had filled after Pleming filed her complaint. The district court, however, granted summary judgment in favor of Universal-Rundle, finding that Pleming had failed to prove that the company's non-discriminatory explanation was pretext, and a panel of this court affirmed without opinion. See Pleming v. Universal-Rundle Corp., No. 1:94-cv-2004-RLV, slip. op. (N.D.Ga. Nov. 22, 1995), aff'd, 100 F.3d 971 (11th Cir.1996) ("Pleming I ").

On January 30, 1996, after the district court entered summary judgment in favor of Universal-Rundle in Pleming I, Pleming filed another complaint in federal district court alleging discrimination and retaliation against her in the company's decision to hire other applicants for the October 1994 clerical openings. Pleming based her claims in this second lawsuit on 42 U.S.C. � 1981. Universal-Rundle moved to dismiss the complaint on the ground that either res judicata or collateral estoppel barred the suit because Pleming had already litigated and lost on her claims arising out of the October 1994 hiring decisions. The district court agreed and dismissed Pleming's complaint.

 

DISCUSSION

 

We subject the district court's decision to dismiss a complaint pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b) to de novo review. See In re Johannessen, 76 F.3d 347, 349 (11th Cir.1996). Although the parties are in essential agreement about the material facts of the case, we assume the allegations of the plaintiff's complaint to be true and construe the facts in the light most favorable to the plaintiff. Id. at 350.

I. res judicata

First, we address the district court's holding that the principles of res judicata barred Pleming's second lawsuit. As the district court correctly observed, the doctrine of res judicata provides repose by preventing the relitigation of claims that have already been fully litigated and decided. Res judicata, or claim preclusion, bars a subsequent claim when a court of competent jurisdiction entered a final judgment on the merits of the same cause of action in a prior lawsuit between the same parties. See I.A. Durbin, Inc. v. Jefferson Nat'l Bank, 793 F.2d 1541, 1549 (11th Cir.1986).(1) Pleming concedes that, if her second suit involves the same cause of action decided in Pleming I, res judicata bars this litigation because her case satisfies all the other elements of the doctrine.

The determination of whether a litigant has asserted the same cause of action in two proceedings depends upon whether the primary right and duty are the same in both cases. See Manning v. City of Auburn, 953 F.2d 1355, 1358 (11th Cir.1992). res judicata acts as a bar "not only to the precise legal theory presented in the previous litigation, but to all legal theories and claims arising out of the same operative nucleus of fact." Id. at 1358-59 (quoting NAACP v. Hunt, 891 F.2d 1555, 1561 (11th Cir.1990) (internal quotation omitted)). A court, therefore, must examine the factual issues that must be resolved in the second suit and compare them with the issues explored in the first case. Id. at 1359.

Pleming's first lawsuit claimed that Universal-Rundle discriminated against her when the company hired a less qualified white employee for a specific clerical position in July 1993. Pleming did not learn that the company had engaged in alleged further discrimination against her by filling two subsequent administrative openings in October 1994 without considering her, until May 1995, during the conduct of discovery in the first lawsuit. Pleming's first complaint, therefore, contained no mention of these subsequent hiring decisions and Pleming did not amend her complaint to include them.

In Manning, we considered a situation in which a plaintiff elected not to participate in an employment discrimination class-action but brought a second suit alleging employment discrimination against the same defendant. The operative facts that gave rise to the plaintiff's claims for discrimination had not occurred when the class filed its claim but some of those facts occurred before the district court dismissed the plaintiff from the class action. The Manning plaintiff, therefore, had an opportunity to preserve her claims in the class action by filing a supplemental pleading or by participating in discovery in that case. See id. at 1359. We, however, observed that Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 15(d), which governs supplemental pleadings, makes such a pleading optional and held that the doctrine of res judicata does not punish a plaintiff for exercising the option not to supplement the pleadings with an after-acquired claim. Id. at 1360. We explained that the parties frame the scope of litigation at the time the complaint is filed and that a judgment is only conclusive regarding the matters that the parties might have litigated at that time but not regarding "new rights acquired, pending the action which might have been, but which were not required to be litigated." Id. (quoting Los Angeles Branch NAACP v. Los Angeles Unified Sch. Dist., 750 F.2d 731, 739 (9th Cir.1984)) (internal quotations omitted). We then explained that:

[W]e do not believe that the res judicata preclusion of claims that "could have been brought" in earlier litigation includes claims which arise after the original pleading is filed in the earlier litigation. Instead, we believe that, for res judicata purposes, claims that "could have been brought" are claims in existence at the time the original complaint is filed or claims actually asserted by supplemental pleadings or otherwise in the earlier action.

Id. (second emphasis added) (footnote omitted); see also Commercial Box & Lumber Co. v. Uniroyal, Inc., 623 F.2d 371, 374 n. 2 (5th Cir.1980) (arriving at a similar conclusion).(2)

The parties in this case agree that the events giving rise to Pleming II arose well after Pleming filed and amended her complaint in the first lawsuit. The parties also agree that, given our holding in Manning, Pleming was under no obligation to amend or supplement her complaint and that she did not do so. Universal-Rundle, however, points out that the Manning opinion left open the possibility that a litigant could assert a claim by other means and contends that Pleming actually asserted her claims arising out of the October 1994 hiring decisions in the Pleming I proceedings by including those incidents in her briefs. Pleming admits that her briefs did refer to these incidents to provide evidence that Universal-Rundle's explanation for hiring someone else in July 1993 was pretextual. The question of whether res judicata bars Pleming's claims, therefore, turns on whether the discussion of a related but distinct cause of action in briefs amounts to the actual assertion of that claim in the first proceeding.(3)

We addressed a similar question in Coon v. Georgia Pacific Corp., 829 F.2d 1563 (11th Cir.1987), and held that a district court had not abused its discretion by refusing to consider a plaintiff's unpled claims even though the plaintiff had included the claims in her briefs and discovery requests. Id. at 1568-71. In Georgia Pacific, the district court held that the plaintiff's references to unpled incidents of alleged discrimination in her pretrial stipulation, in her motions before the court, and throughout the conduct of discovery were no substitute for the factual allegations of a complaint required by Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 8. We affirmed the district court, noting that although the plaintiff was free to plead her additional claims in the litigation, she had not done so: "These claims were not somehow "present' within her complaint, despite her failure to allege them." Id. at 1570. Of particular relevance to the case before us, the Georgia Pacific court rejected the plaintiff's argument that the claims were properly before the district court because she alleged they were part of a "continuing violation." Id. (citing cases that require a plaintiff to plead instances of continuing violations that occur after the initiation of an EEOC charge or similar litigation before they are properly before the court); Jones v. Florida Power Corp., 825 F.2d 1488, 1492-93 (11th Cir.1987) (upholding a district court's refusal to hear evidence on incidents of discrimination that tended to establish a pattern of racial discrimination because the plaintiff's complaint contained no allegations regarding either the incidents or the pattern of discrimination); see also Wu v. Thomas, 863 F.2d 1543, 1548-49 (11th Cir.1989) (inclusion of testimony in a prior action that touched on the substance of second cause of action for retaliation could not implicitly amend the complaint in the prior action).

Although Manning intimated that a litigant may "otherwise" assert a claim, without filing a supplemental pleading, the court did not purport to suspend the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. We believe that these other means must conform with the rules of procedure and would, for example, include an amendment pursuant to Rule 15(b) or the assertion of a claim through a pretrial order pursuant to Rule 16(e).(4) Neither of these options apply to this case. Since Universal-Rundle objected to Pleming's statements about the October 1994 incidents in her briefs, it is clear that the parties could not have tried the issue "by express or implied consent." See Fed.R.Civ.P. 15(b) (which permits a court to treat such issues as if they had been pled in the complaint). Moreover, neither the magistrate judge nor the district court entered a pretrial order in this case.

Pleming's references to the October 1994 incidents of alleged discrimination during the first lawsuit are similar to the references that we have held insufficient to assert a claim before a district court. In her response to Universal-Rundle's motion for summary judgment, Pleming argued that the October 1994 incidents demonstrated pretext in connection with the July 1993 hiring decision and asserted that the incidents constituted evidence of a "continuing violation." Pleming also used the October 1994 incidents in her objections to the magistrate judge's report to provide evidence of discriminatory intent. As the cases discussed above reveal, however, Pleming's references to the incidents in her briefs were insufficient to put her claims of discrimination and retaliation arising out of the October 1994 incidents before the district court pursuant to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Accordingly, these references were insufficient to actually assert these claims in the prior litigation as contemplated in Manning.

Universal-Rundle pushed for exactly this conclusion before the magistrate judge and the district court in Pleming I when it argued that the October 1994 incidents were beyond the scope of Pleming's complaint and therefore not properly before the court. The company now contends that the magistrate judge implicitly rejected its position by including Pleming's contentions in his report. The "Background Facts" portion of the report includes two sentences regarding the October 1994 vacancies, but the report limits its analysis to Pleming's claim of discrimination arising out of the company's July 1993 decision to award the clerical position to a white employee.(5) Similarly, the district court's opinion, which rejected the magistrate judge's conclusions on the employment discrimination claims and granted Universal-Rundle's motion for summary judgment, made no mention of the October 1994 incidents. The isolated reference in the magistrate judge's report does not support the defendant's contention that the magistrate judge and the district court actually adjudicated an unpled and unasserted claim. At best, the report's reference to the post-1993 openings indicates that the magistrate judge may have considered the events as evidence of pretext but does nothing to suggest that the magistrate judge actually rendered a decision about whether those events constituted independent or even continuing acts of employment discrimination. As a result, we find that the district court erred when it decided that res judicata barred Pleming's claims of discrimination arising out of the October 1994 incidents.

II. Collateral Estoppel

We must also address the district court's alternative holding that collateral estoppel bars Pleming's second lawsuit. While res judicata bars the relitigation of claims, collateral estoppel precludes the relitigation of an issue that has already been litigated and resolved in a prior proceeding. See Durbin, 793 F.2d at 1549. To claim the benefit of collateral estoppel the party relying on the doctrine must show that: (1) the issue at stake is identical to the one involved in the prior proceeding; (2) the issue was actually litigated in the prior proceeding; (3) the determination of the issue in the prior litigation must have been "a critical and necessary part" of the judgment in the first action; and (4) the party against whom collateral estoppel is asserted must have had a full and fair opportunity to litigate the issue in the prior proceeding. Id. The district court found that the Pleming I court, before it could have granted summary judgment in Universal-Rundle's favor, necessarily evaluated Pleming's claims regarding the October 1994 incidents and found no evidence of discrimination.

Our conclusion that Pleming did not actually assert a claim for employment discrimination arising out of the October 1994 incidents in the first lawsuit leads us to question whether the parties actually litigated those issues. The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit has explained that the actual litigation requirement for the application of collateral estoppel "will usually be satisfied merely by the designation of the question as one for trial (for example by its being listed on the pretrial order as an issue that is to be tried ... ), even if no evidence is introduced...." Truck Ins. Exch. v. Ashland Oil, Inc., 951 F.2d 787, 792 (7th Cir.1992); see also Restatement (Second) of Judgments � 27 cmt. d (1982) ("When an issue is properly raised, by the pleadings or otherwise, and is submitted for determination, and is determined, the issue is actually litigated....").(6) Although it is clear that Pleming made no such formal declaration of her intent to litigate the October 1994 incidents during Pleming I, Universal-Rundle argues that because Pleming offered the incidents as evidence of discriminatory intent and pretext, Pleming actually litigated her claims for employment discrimination arising out of those incidents.

We rejected a similar argument, however, as "completely devoid of merit" in Wu, 863 F.2d at 1548-49. In that case, we found that a judgment against the plaintiff on prior claims of gender discrimination did not collaterally estop a subsequent claim for retaliation, even though the testimony offered in the first trial "touched on" the defendant's retaliatory actions. Id. Similarly, we cannot accept Universal-Rundle's contention that Pleming litigated her claims arising out of the October 1994 incidents, including her claims of retaliation for filing Pleming I, simply by offering the incidents as evidence of pretext in a distinct employment decision. This is not a case in which the plaintiff squarely presented an issue for decision in the first litigation and failed to carry the burden of proof; rather, "[i]t was neither framed by the pleadings as an issue nor decided by the district judge." Ashland Oil, 951 F.2d at 793.

We note that Pleming's present complaint alleges that Universal-Rundle did not hire her for a clerical position in October 1994 at least in part to retaliate against her for filing the Pleming I litigation. Regardless of what else Pleming may have argued in the first lawsuit, it is clear that the subject of retaliation did not arise, and Universal-Rundle does not contend otherwise. Moreover, to the extent Pleming did raise the October 1994 incidents in the first litigation, she did not "actually litigate" the question of whether those incidents would themselves constitute employment discrimination. Pleming sought to introduce these incidents to show that Universal-Rundle's citation to a policy against transferring employees to lower paying jobs was pretextual. Pleming attempted to show pretext by proving that although Universal-Rundle knew by October 1994 that she could not handle the physical demands of her higher paying position and, therefore, could not demand that the company return her to that job, the company still refused to hire her in a clerical position. Much like we held in Wu, this tangential reference to the events of October 1994 was an insufficient basis for district court's conclusion that the parties had actually litigated the issue.(7) Cf. Rath v. Gallup, Inc., 51 F.3d 791, 793 (8th Cir.1995) (a plaintiff's failure to establish pretext in a prior litigation establishes only that the employment decision in question was not improperly motivated and that was the only issue that was " "actually litigated' for collateral estoppel purposes"); United States v. Woods, 484 F.2d 127, 138 (4th Cir.1973) (finding that a grant of acquittal on one count of a criminal prosecution did not collaterally estop the prosecution from offering evidence on that count to prove absence of accident on other counts). Accordingly, we reverse the district court's alternative holding that collateral estoppel barred Pleming's suit in this case.

 

CONCLUSION

 

Pleming asks us to reverse the district court's decision to dismiss her complaint as barred by the doctrines of res judicata and collateral estoppel. We conclude that the district court erred when it found that Pleming actually asserted claims for employment discrimination and retaliation arising out of incidents that occurred after she filed her complaint in Pleming I. We also find that the district court erred in its alternative holding that Pleming's references to these incidents in her briefs in Pleming I constituted actual litigation of those claims. Accordingly, we hold that res judicata and collateral estoppel do not bar Pleming's complaint in this subsequent lawsuit. We REVERSE and REMAND this case to the district court for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.

 

 


FOOTNOTES

*. Honorable Maurice B. Cohill, Senior U.S. District Judge for the Western District of Pennsylvania, sitting by designation.


1. Neither the parties nor the district court address whether state or federal principles of res judicata apply to the case at bar. Our precedents on this question appear to lead in two different directions. Compare Precision Air Parts, Inc. v. Avco Corp., 736 F.2d 1499, 1503 (11th Cir.1984) (a federal court reviewing the preclusive effect of a prior federal judgment applies federal common law) with NAACP v. Hunt, 891 F.2d 1555, 1560 (11th Cir.1990) ("Federal courts apply the law of the state in which they sit with respect to the doctrine of res judicata."). As a result, the district courts have found themselves in some confusion. 974 F.Supp. 1476, 1479-81 (M.D.Ga.1996) (describing these precedents). Since both federal and Georgia principles of res judicata require the cause of action in the first and second lawsuit to be the same, compare Durbin, 793 F.2d at 1549, with Waldroup v. Greene County Hosp. Auth., 265 Ga. 864, 866, 463 S.E.2d 5, 7 (1995), we need not resolve the conflict to decide this appeal. We note the problem, however, in the hope that future litigants will consider and brief the issue.


2. In Bonner v. City of Prichard, 661 F.2d 1206, 1209 (11th Cir.1981) (en banc ), this court adopted as binding precedent all decisions of the former Fifth Circuit handed down prior to October 1, 1981.


3. Universal-Rundle also contends that the July 1993 and October 1994 incidents do not present factually distinct causes of action, but rather the same claim litigated on a different legal theory. Universal-Rundle's argument that both incidents concern the company's duty to hire Pleming in a clerical capacity is overbroad and unpersuasive. Pleming has not attempted to relitigate the circumstances of the July 1993 hiring decision under a different legal theory. Instead, Pleming alleges that the October 1994 incidents, which took place over a year later, constitute independent acts of discrimination. See e.g., Mahroom v. Hook, 563 F.2d 1369, 1377 (9th Cir.1977) (holding that identical allegations of discrimination in connection with a hiring decision two years after the subject of an earlier proceeding constituted a separate cause of action). Universal-Rundle's reliance on ambiguous language in our predecessor court's opinions to support the proposition that res judicata bars litigation regarding subsequent acts that arise after the plaintiff files a complaint in the first action but before the court enters judgment is unpersuasive in light of our opinion in Manning.


4. We note, however, that there is precedent in this circuit, preceding our opinion in Manning, that holds that a plaintiff's interjection of unpled matters into a supplementary pretrial statement and introduction of evidence on those matters as "background material" to distinct legal claims does not bar the subsequent litigation of the plaintiff's independent claims arising out of those matters. See Stevenson v. International Paper Co., 516 F.2d 103, 111 (5th Cir.1975). We express no opinion on whether the result in Stevenson properly might be limited to its facts.


5. The report states in pertinent part: "Other clerical positions became available after July 1993. Plaintiff did not apply for any of these positions." R1-4, Exh.1 at 6 (citations omitted).


6. Once again, we note that the parties and the district court have failed to address whether federal or state principles of collateral estoppel apply to this question. As we observed above, however, both Georgia and federal law require the actual litigation of the issue in question in the prior proceeding. Compare Durbin, 793 F.2d at 1549, with Waldroup, 265 Ga. at 867, 463 S.E.2d at 7.


7. Throughout its brief Universal-Rundle cites to a number of cases that make the point that failure to make all the arguments possible in support of a position in the first litigation does not preclude the application of collateral estoppel. See Zip Dee, Inc. v. Dometic Corp., 905 F.Supp. 535 (N.D.Ill.1995). We find no fault with those cases but find that they offer little assistance in our analysis of this case. Pleming did not attempt to litigate her independent claims of employment discrimination and retaliation on a different legal theory in Pleming I; she simply sought to use them as evidence to contradict Universal-Rundle's explanations regarding the July 1993

 

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JUDGE GRAHAM AND ELEVENTH CIRCUIT:  RES JUDICATA APPLIES TO CAUSES OF ACTION WHICH DID NOT EXIST IN PRIOR LAWSUIT !!
Judge Donald L. Graham is Above the Law!!!
 
Judge Donald L. Graham is clearly above the law!

Judge Donald Graham, U.S. District Court, Southern District
Judge Donald L. Graham                                                         Maria Sorolis, esq. extraordinare  Maria Sorolis

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 RES JUDICATA GONE HAYWIRE

Specifically Judge Donald L. Graham has ruled that a lawsuit filed on February 4, 1999 (Case No. 99-14027-CV-Graham) serves as the basis for res judicata for claims  that  did not exist  until March 28, 2001 and January 25, 2000 (Case No. 01-14310-CV-Graham)

  

In yet another stunning, outrageous,  and "unpublished decision", Judge Donald L. Graham rules that res judicata applies to new causes of action  even if the new cause of action did not exist when the former action was filed.   Judge Donald L. Graham has refused to provide any legal precedence for such an opinion.    Judge Donald L. Graham awards Maria Sorolis and Highlands County res judicata in Case No. 01-14310 because of a prior case, 99-14027-CV-Graham which was dismissed because Marcellus Mason talked to the government and requested public records under Florida law.   See 99-14027-CV-Graham Case Summary.  Maria Sorolis filed a garbage brief stealing the defense of res judicata.   See Maria Sorolis' Summary Judgement Motion

 

 

Judge Graham, the Eleventh Circuit, and Maria Sorolis all refuse to discuss the dates the causes of action arose in the two cases, 99-14027-CV-Graham and Case No. 01-14310-CV-Graham, however they both claim res judicata.  See Report and Recommendation (R&R) and Order Adopting R&R

No court in United States history has ever discussed, much less applied res judicata without discussing when the causes of action arose.  This is clear evidence that both Judge Graham and Maria Sorolis are deceitful.  How can res judicata be discussed without mentioning dates?

How can you sue on February 4, 1999 (Case No. 99-14027-CV-Graham) for claims  that  did not exist  until March 28, 2001 and January 25, 2000 (Case No. 01-14310-CV-Graham)?

 

PERTINENT RECORD FACTS

Case No. 99-14027-CV-Graham

The first suit, Case No. 99-14027-CIV, among other things, states claims due to Mason’s termination on November 25, 1998.   This lawsuit was filed in February 1999.  See Docket at end of this Page.   See also 99-14027-CV-Graham Case Summary.

Case No. 01-14310-CV-Graham

Case No. 01-14310-CIV-Graham was disposed of based upon the Defendants motion for summary judgment.  The Defendants hijacked the defense of res judicata.   The Defendants claim they were entitled to res judicata   because of a prior filed case, S.D.Fla. Case No. 99-14027-CIV-Graham.  This complaint sets forth claims for failure to hire (sign technician) and retaliation (network administrator), which accrued on March 28, 2001 and January 25, 2000, respectively, and subsequent to November 30, 1998 See Notice of Right to Sue,

Judge Graham’s Slick and Dishonest Justification. 

Judge Graham awarded the Defendants’ res judicata based solely upon the following “facts” or gobbledygook

11. This Court notes that the factual allegations on which the Plaintiff bases his federal law claims stem from his initial termination of employment. For example, the Plaintiff alleges that Highlands County’s refusal to re-hire him was an act of retaliation and/or an act of discrimination. In support of these allegations, the Plaintiff makes reference to Highlands County’s alleged discriminatory behavior around the time of his prior employment and termination. Indeed, the underlying termination is fundamental to the Plaintiff’s civil rights claims. This is especially so in light of the fact that the Defendants raise his discharge for wrongful conduct and the disciplinary action of permanent removal as a non-discriminatory, legitimate ground for the refusal to re-hire.
12. The issue of whether the termination was lawful has already been litigated in this court, and such claims were dismissed with prejudice with the right to appeal. Therefore, the federal claims raised in the instant case are barred by the doctrine of res judicata for arising from the same nucleus of operative facts and relying on the same factual predicate of the prior litigation. Jang v. United Technologies Corp., 206 F.3d 1147 (11th Cir. 2000)
13.
The principle of res judicata also leads to a sensible result in light of the Plaintiff’s legal arguments. After one’s prior termination has been decided in the employer’s favor, it is convoluted logic to argue that the employer’s refusal to re-hire the former worker was the result of unlawful discrimination. To rule otherwise would render meaningless any judicial finding of lawful discharge. Certainly, the protections afforded under Title VII are not meant to enable unappeased litigants to bring recurrent litigation against former employers.

See Report and Recommendation (R&R) and Order Adopting R&R


ELEVENTH CIRCUIT'S OPINION OR PROPAGANDA
In yet another one of the Eleventh Circuit's unpublished opinions, the Eleventh Circuit has held that res judicata applies to new causes of action which accrue after a prior lawsuit is filed.  The reader should notice that the Eleventh Circuit does not discuss the dates the causes of action accrued either.  

Res judicata bars Mason's employment discrimination claims against the county. Under res judicata, "a final judgment on the merits bars the parties from , re-litigating a cause of action that was or could have been raised in that action." In re Piper Aircraft Corp., 244 F.3d 1289, 1296 (lIth Cir. 2001).  Penalty dismissals under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 41 (b) are considered to be a final judgmenton the merits.  See Orca Yachts v. MoHican, Inc., 287 F.3d 316,319 (4th Cir.2002); 18A Charles Alan Wright, Arthur R. Miller, Edward H. Cooper, FederalPractice and Procedure § 4440, at 205 (2002);  Federal Rules of Civil ProcedureI'41(b) ("For failure of the plaintiff to prosecute or comply with these rules or any order of the court, a defendant may move for dismissal of an action. . . Unless the court in its order for dismissal otherwise specifies. . . a dismissal under this, subdivision. . . operates as an adjudication on the merits.") In several previous lawsuits, including 99-CV-14027, Mason claimed Highlands County engaged in race discrimination. The district court dismissed 99-CV-14027 under Rule 41(b) because of Mason's continual disregard for the court's orders and rules. This court affirmed the Rule 41 (b) penalty dismissal of 99-CV-14027 in Mason v. Heartland Library Cooperative, 01-13664 (11th Cir. October 16, 2002). Therefore, because a final judgment on the merits has been previously rendered on his race discrimination claims against Highlands County,res judicata bars Mason's re-assertion of those claims.

See Eleventh's Circuit's Unsigned and Unpublished Opinion, Case No. 02-13418. 

The opinion represents one of the Eleventh Circuit's slick techniques.  The following slick techniques are employed here:
  • Firstly, the Eleventh Circuit states the desired outcome.  "Res judicata bars Mason's employment discrimination claims against the county. "
  • Secondly, the Eleventh Circuit states the law of res judicata in general.  They then cite scant few facts as possible to arrive at the desired outcome.  Facts are stated in general terms. This is the real selling point and gives legitimacy and plausibilty to the desired outcome.  If the opinion offers no more facts than the Eleventh Circuit does here, then no one will be the wiser.  However, the decision is lawless, disingenious, dishonest, and insulting because it leaves out facts material to making a legitimate decision that is worth of scrutiny and a publised opinion.  Presumably, if this were a published opinion, this junk law would not have been made. 
  • Last, but not least, and most importantly, facts material to a legitimate discussion of res judicata are simply ignored.  Res judicata is as much a time concept as anything esle.  How can you not discusss causes of action and when they arose if you plan to make a legitimate and logical decision with respect to res judicata? 

For more of the Eleventh's Circuit treachery, please visit the trickery page





LEGAL MEMORANDUM

Trustmark Insurance Company v. ESLU, INC.,  299 F.3d 1265; 2002 U.S. App. LEXIS 15500,*; 15 Fla. L. Weekly Fed. C 861 (11th Cir. 2002).
Trustmark holds that under the circumstances present in the instant case that res judicata  is impossible.  Specifically, Trustmark held that “relevant in this analysis is when the facts arose.”  “The delayed discovery rule prevents a cause of action from accruing until the plaintiff either knows or reasonably should know of the act giving rise to the cause of action.”  Id.  (citing Hearndon v. Graham, 767 So. 2d 1179, 1184 (Fla. 2000)).  “The doctrine of res judicata does not however bar a cause merely because the actions arose from the same factual situation… Identity of the causes of action is established where the facts which are required to maintain both actions are identical.”  Cole v. First Dev. Corp. Of Am., 339 So.2d 1130, 1131 (Fla.App. 2 Dist.1976); Wu v. Thomas, 863 F.2d 1543, 1548-49 (11th Cir. 1989) (prior discrimination action did not bar current action for retaliation).  Applying this requirement to the instant case, the facts required to establish Plaintiff’s failure to hire claims that arose on March 28, 2001 and January 25, 2000, respectively, are different from those requirements those that related to Plaintiff’s termination on November 30, 1998. “A judgment is not res judicata  as to rights which were not in existence and which could not have been litigated at the time the prior judgment was entered.”  Wood v Martin, 688 So. 2d 431; 1997 Fla. App. LEXIS 1791, *8 (Fla. 5th DCA 1997).   “When other facts or conditions intervene before the second suit, furnishing a new basis for the claims and defenses of the respective parties, the issues are no longer the same and the former judgment cannot be pleaded in bar of the second action.”  State Street Bank v. Badra, 765 So.2d 251, 254 (Fla.App. 4 Dist. 2000); Albrecht v. State, 444 So.2d 8 (Fla. 1984)(“ It is also a settled rule that when the second suit is between the same parties, but based upon a different cause of action from the first, the prior judgment will not serve as an estoppel except as to those issues actually litigated and determined in it.”) “[A]s a matter of logic, when the second action concerns a transaction occurring after the commencement of the prior litigation, claim preclusion generally does not come into play.”  Maharaj v. Bankamerica Corp., 128 F.3d 94,  (2nd Cir. 1997).  Significantly, and on the facts that are indistinguishable from the instant case, the State Street Court held that neither res judicata  or collateral estoppel were appropriate. 

While the two complaints filed by State Street Bank in the first 'and second actions were identical, the notices of acceleration, differed significantly between the two cases.  The first action  ‘relied upon notices of acceleration dated December 15, 1992 and March 22, 1993 and the instant action relied upon a notice of acceleration dated February 18, 1997, after the conclusion of the  first action.

Id. at 254.

For similar cases involving the identical factual premise, see Lawlor v. National Screen Service, 349 U.S. 322, 327-328 (1955); Manning v. City Of Auburn, 953 F.2d 1355 (11th Cir. 1992); Pleming v. Universal-Rundle Corporation, 142 F.3d 1354, 1357-58 (11th Cir. 1998); Southeast Florida Cable v. Martin County, 173 F.3d 1332, 1336-7(11th Cir. 1999); Florida Power & Light Co. v. U.S., 198 F.3d 1358, 1360-1361 (Fed. Cir. 1999).

            Legally, Plaintiff had no obligation to amend his lawsuit to add after acquired claims even if they accrued during the process of this litigation.  Pleming v. Universal-Rundle Corporation, 142 F.3d 1354, 1357(11th Cir. 1998)(“Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 15(d), which governs supplemental pleadings, makes such a pleading optional and held that the doctrine of res judicata does not punish a plaintiff for exercising the option not to supplement the pleadings with an after-acquired claim…[a] judgment is only conclusive regarding the matters that the parties might have litigated at that time but not regarding "new rights acquired, pending the action which might have been, but which were not required to be litigated.”).  However, the Defendants vigorously opposed motions for leave to amend and this Court agreed with the Defendants. 

The Defendants asserted“ Plaintiff’s claims are barred in whole or in part by the doctrine of res judicata .”  (Doc. 3, page 15). On no less than three separate occasions Plaintiff properly moved to strike this defense because it is merely a legal conclusion and this defense is impossible under the facts of this case.  (Doc. 7);(Doc. 11);(Doc. 32).




U.S. District Court

Southern District of Florida (Ft. Pierce)

CIVIL DOCKET FOR CASE #: 99-CV-14027

Mason v. Heartland Library, et al

Filed: 02/04/99
Assigned to: Judge Donald L. Graham
Demand: $0,000
Nature of Suit: 320
Lead Docket: None
Jurisdiction: Federal Question
Dkt# in other court: None
Cause: 28:1331 Fed. Question: Personal Injury
 


MARCELLUS M. MASON, JR.           Marcellus M. Mason, Jr.
     plaintiff                    [COR LD NTC] [PRO SE]
                                  218 Florida Drive
                                  Sebring, FL 33870
   v.
HEARTLAND LIBRARY COOPERATIVE     Gregory Alan Hearing
     defendant                     [term  08/18/99] 
                                  FTS 273-0072
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  John William Bencivenga
                                   [term  08/18/99] 
                                  FTS 273-0072
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Thompson Sizemore & Gonzalez
                                  109 N Brush Street
                                  Suite 200 PO Box 639
                                  Tampa, FL 33601
                                  813-273-0050
                                  Brian William Koji
                                  FTS 253-2006
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Allen Norton & Blue
                                  324 S Hyde Park Boulevard
                                  Suite 350
                                  Tampa, FL 33606
                                  813-251-1210
                                  Mark Edward Levitt
                                  FTS 253-2006
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  FTS 253-2006
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Allen Norton & Blue
                                  324 S Hyde Park Avenue
                                  Suite 350
                                  Tampa, FL 33606
                                  813-251-1210
HIGHLANDS COUNTY BOARD OF         Gregory Alan Hearing
COUNTY COMMISSIONERS               [term  08/18/99] 
     defendant                    (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  John William Bencivenga
                                   [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Brian William Koji
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Mark Edward Levitt
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
HARDEE COUNTY                     Brian William Koji
     defendant                    (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Mark Edward Levitt
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
CAROLYN HESSELINK                 Gregory Alan Hearing
     defendant                     [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  John William Bencivenga
                                   [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Brian William Koji
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Mark Edward Levitt
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
DIANE HUNT                        Brian William Koji
     defendant                    (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Mark Edward Levitt
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
FRED CARINO                       Gregory Alan Hearing
     defendant                     [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  John William Bencivenga
                                   [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Brian William Koji
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Mark Edward Levitt
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
FRED MYERS                        Gregory Alan Hearing
     defendant                     [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  John William Bencivenga
                                   [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Brian William Koji
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Mark Edward Levitt
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
MARY MYERS                        Gregory Alan Hearing
     defendant                     [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  John William Bencivenga
                                   [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Brian William Koji
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Mark Edward Levitt
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
LESLIE WOOD                       Gregory Alan Hearing
     defendant                     [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  John William Bencivenga
                                   [term  08/18/99] 
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Brian William Koji
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Mark Edward Levitt
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
CARL COOL                         Brian William Koji
     defendant                    (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
HIGHLANDS COUNTY SHERIFF'S        Summer Marie Barranco
OFFICE                            [COR LD NTC]
     defendant                    Purdy Jolly & Giuffreda
                                  1322 SE 3rd Avenue
                                  Fort Lauderdale, FL 33316
                                  954-462-3200
ALL DEFENDANTS
     defendant
DESOTO COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY     Brian William Koji
COMMISSIONERS                     (See above)
     consolidated defendant       [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
ED KILROY                         Brian William Koji
     consolidated defendant       (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
OKEECHOBEE COUNTY BOARD OF        Brian William Koji
COUNTY COMMISSIONERS              (See above)
     consolidated defendant       [COR LD NTC]
                                  Maria N. Sorolis
                                  (See above)
                                  [COR LD NTC]
DAVID FLOWERS
     consolidated defendant
J. ROSS MACBETH
     defendant
 

DOCKET     PROCEEDINGS



DATE     #                   DOCKET     ENTRY
 

2/4/99   1       COMPLAINT filed; ifp; A-12; FJL (cg) [Entry date 02/05/99]
 
 
2/4/99   2       MOTION by Marcellus M. Mason Jr. to proceed in forma
                 pauperis (cg) [Entry date 02/05/99]
 
 
2/4/99   --      Magistrate identification:  Magistrate Judge Frank J.
                 Lynch, Jr. (cg) [Entry date 02/05/99]
 
 
2/22/99  3       ORDER granting [2-1] motion to proceed in forma pauperis (
                 signed by Judge Edward B. Davis  on 2/20/99) CCAP (aa)
                 [Entry date 02/25/99]
 
 
3/1/99   4       Waiver of service executed by Heartland Library, Highlands
                 County, Carolyn Hesselink, Fred Carino, Mary Myers, Fred
                 Myers, Leslie Wood  (Attorney Gregory Alan Hearing),
                 2/23/99 Answer due by 4/24/99 for Leslie Wood, for Fred
                 Myers, for Mary Myers, for Fred Carino, for Carolyn
                 Hesselink, for Highlands County, for Heartland Library (aa)
                 [Entry date 03/02/99]
 
 
3/1/99   5       Answer and affirmative defenses by Heartland Library,
                 Highlands County, Carolyn Hesselink, Fred Carino, Fred
                 Myers, Mary Myers, Leslie Wood (Attorney John William
                 Bencivenga), (aa) [Entry date 03/02/99]

 

 

 

 

 

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